Begin Linux 3

Lesson 3
Using Linux Terminal
 Linux Terminal is the same thing as the DOS prompt or CMD in Windows. It does the same thing.
But it has different commands.



Terminal Keyboard shortcuts

Tab  : Autocompletes from the cursor position.

Ctrl+a : moves the cursor at the beginning of the line (equivalent to the key Home).

Ctrl+e : (end) moves the cursor at the line end (equivalent to the key End).

Ctrl+p : (previous) recalls the previous command (equivalent to the key ).

Ctrl+n : (next) recalls the next command (equivalent to the key ).

Ctrl+o : executes the found command from research.

Ctrl+l : clears the screen content (equivalent to the command clear).

Ctrl+u : clears the line content before the cursor and copies it onto the clipboard.

Ctrl+k : clears the line content after the cursor and copy it in the clipboard.

Ctrl+w : clears the word before the cursor and copy it in the clipboard.


Ctrl+d : sends an EOF marker, which (unless disabled by an option) closes the current shell (equivalent to the command exit). (Only if there is no text on the current line)

Ctrl+c : sends the signal SIGINT to the current task, which aborts and closes it.

Ctrl+z : sends the signal SIGTSTP to the current task, which suspends it. To return to it later one can 
enter fg ['process name or job id'] (foreground).

Ctrl+x Ctrl+x : (because x has a crossing shape) alternates the cursor with its old position.

Alt+f : (forward) moves forward the cursor of one word.

Alt+b : (backward) moves backward the cursor of one word.

Alt+Del : cuts the word before the cursor.

Alt+d : cuts the word after the cursor.

Alt+u : capitalizes every character from the cursor's position to the end of the current word.

Alt+l : lowers the case of every character from the cursor's position to the end of the current word.

Alt+c : capitalizes the character under the cursor and moves to the end of the word.

Alt+r : cancels the changes and put back the line as it was in the history.


Every Command that you need to know!

Viewing, copying, moving and deleting files

ls Display the contents of the current directory
ls -a Display also hidden files and hidden directories
cp filename /path/dir_name Copy filename into directory /path/dir_name
cp -r dir_name /path/dir_name2 Copy the entire dir_name into /path/dir_name2
cp filename1 filename2 /path/dir_name Copy filename1 and filename2 into /path/dir_name
rm name Remove a file or directory called name
rm -r name Remove an entire directory as well as its included files and subdirectories
mv filename /path/dir_name Move filename into /path/dir_name
mv filename1 filename2 Rename filename1 to filename2
cat filename Display filenames contents
more filename Display filename in pages. Use spacebar to view next page
head filename Display filenames first 10 lines
head -15 filename Display filenames first 15 lines
tail filename Display filenames last 10 lines
tail -15 filename Display filenames last 15 lines
pwd Display current directory
cd /path/dir_name Change to directory /path/dir_name
cd .. Go 1 directory up
mkdir dir_name Create directory dir_name
rmdir dir_name Delete directory dir_name
 

Finding files and text within files

updatedb Update (create first time used) a database of all files under the root directory /
locate filename Find file filename searching in the database
find / -name filename Starting from the root directory search for the file called filename
find / -name *filename Same as above but search for file containing the string filename
grep string /path/dir_name Starting from /path/dir_name search for all files containing string
which application_name Search $path for application app_name
whereis application_name Search $path, man pages and source files for application_name
 

Archived files

Decompress
tar -xzf filename.tgz Decompress tzg file
tar -xzf filename.tar.gz Decompress tar.gz file
tar -xjf filename.tar.bz2 Decompress tar.bz2 file
 
Compress
tar -czf filename.tar /path/dir_name Compress directory /path/dir_name to filename.tar
gzip -c filename > filename.gz Compress /path/dir_name to filename.tar.gz
bzip2 -c filename > filename.bz2 Compress /path/dir_name to filename.tar.bz2
 

Using rpm files 

rpm -hiv package.rpm Install rpm called package.rpm
rpm -hiv --force package.rpm Install rpm called package.rpm by force
rpm -hUv package.rpm Upgrade rpm called package.rpm
rpm -e package.rpm Delete rpm called package.rpm
rpm -qpil package.rpm List files in not-installed rpm called package.rpm
rpm -ql package.rpm List files in installed rpm called package.rpm
rpm -q str List installed rpms containing the string str
rpm -qf /path/application_name Display the rpm that contains application application_name
 

Starting and Stoping 

startx Start the X system
shutdown -h now Shutdown the system now and do not reboot
halt
Same as above
shutdown -r now Reboot
reboot Same as above
shutdown -r +10 Reboot in 10 minutes
   

Mounting filesystems

mount -t vfat /dev/sd(a)(1) /mnt/c_drive Mount the first partition 1 of the first hard disk drive a which is in fat32 vfat dormat under /mnt/c_drive directory
mount -t iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom Mount cdrom under /mnt/cdrom directory
umount /mnt/hda1 Unmout the above
 

User administration

users Display users currently logged in
adduser username Create a new user called username
passwd username Define password for user called username
who List logged-in users
whoami Display current user
finger username Displays info about user username
su Log in as root from current login
su - Log in as root from current login and take root's path
exit Exit from console login (ie, logout).
 

Processes 

command Execute command in the foreground
command & Execute command in the background
ctrl+z Suspend a program
ctrl+c Interrupt a program
ps List all processes
kill -9 pid Kill process with id pid
top Monitor processes in real time
 

Networking 

hostname List the system's hostname
ifconfig Set/Display network information
host ip Resolves ip's hostname
ping ip/hostname Check if ip/hostname is reachable
traceroute ip/hostname Find network path to ip/hostname
   

System Information

uname -a General system information
fdisk -l List partition tables
cp filename /path/dir_name Copy filename into directory /path/dir_name
df -T -h List filesystem disk space usage
lspci List PCI devices
lsusb List USB devices
free -m Display RAM+Swap usage
 

Program Compile

gcc -o output file.c Compile a C program
./output Run a C program you have compiled
g++ -o output file.cpp Compile a C++ program
./output Run a C++ program you have compiled
./configure && make && su -c 'make install' Configure, compile and install a program with Makefile

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